Archive for the ‘Lesson Excerpt’ Category

Usually, when you take an LSAT, you will get your score report back along with the entire test you took. That means you’ll get to see not only your LSAT score, but also the actual questions you attempted to answer on test day. You can look at your score report, analyze the questions you missed, and review it like you would a PrepTest. These are the disclosed LSATs.

With a disclosed LSAT, on score release day, you’ll get the following from LSAC:

  • Your scaled score (120 – 180)
  • Your raw score (0 – 100)
  • Your percentile (0% – 99.9%)
  • A copy of your answer sheet
  • A copy of the test you took with every single question in it

However, some LSATs are not disclosed. When the test is nondisclosed, you won’t get the test back when you receive your score. That means you can't see where you made mistakes.

On score release day, you’ll only get the following from LSAC:

  • Your score (120 – 180)
  • Your percentile (0% – 99.9%)

Obviously, it’s a drawback of taking the nondisclosed LSAT that you can’t review the questions you missed. Indeed, you won’t even know which questions you missed.

How many LSATs are nondisclosed?

In the United States, Canada, and the Caribbean in 2018–2019, three LSATs are nondisclosed.

  • June 2018
  • July 2018 (nondisclosed)
  • September 2018
  • November 2018
  • January 2019 (nondisclosed)
  • March 2019 (nondisclosed)

In addition to the three above, LSATs taken outside the United States, Canada, and the Caribbean are always nondisclosed. These tests are often referred to as international tests.

Are international nondisclosed tests different?


For example, students reported that the June 2018 LSAT in Asia (nondisclosed) used the same test as the February 2015 LSAT (nondisclosed) in North America. The December 2017 LSAT in Asia and February 2018 LSAT in Europe was also the test used for the February 2013 LSAT (nondisclosed) in North America.

The LSAT is a standardized test for admission to law schools in North America (and a few schools in Australia), so it's not supposed to vary by region. International tests often use previously administered nondisclosed LSATs (such as February tests in North America).

Why are some LSATs nondisclosed?

LSAC says, "LSAC discloses some but not all tests because it is necessary to have some nondisclosed test forms available for emergencies and special uses."

It is a way for LSAC to keep some test forms for future uses. For example, there are sometimes make-up tests for people who couldn’t take the LSAT due to some natural disaster, and according to some students’ reports, previously administered nondisclosed tests are used in make-up administrations.

How should I prepare for nondisclosed tests?

In exactly the same way as you would for any LSAT. There’s nothing different you should do for nondisclosed tests.

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What is the “experimental” section?

The LSAT is composed of five multiple choice sections, but only four are scored. Those four sections include two Logical Reasoning (LR) sections, one Logic Games (LG) section, and one Reading Comprehension (RC) section.

The remaining section is the experimental section, which can be an LR, LG, or RC section. Crucially, that section does not affect your score.

On 7Sage’s Forums and elsewhere, you’ll see people refer to that section as “fake” to distinguish it from the four “real,” that is, scored sections.

Given that there are always one RC, one LG, and two LR sections that determine your LSAT score, if you see an extra section - for example, you see two RC sections - you can rightly infer that one of them is experimental or “fake.”

How can you find out which section is experimental?

You can’t. So don’t bother.

When you are taking the test, you might think, “Wait, another LG section? And this flowers game... it’s so weird. I’ve never seen anything like this before. Must be experimental.”

You could be right or you could be wrong. My point is: don’t think about it. Your suspicions will only divert your valuable attention and other mental resources away from the far more important task at hand: taking the LSAT.

The experimental section could appear as your first, second, third, fourth, or fifth section. So treat every section like it’s real.

The LSAC says, “Identification of the unscored section is not available until you receive your score report.” However, after the test, you can come to our Forums and through a process of cross referencing against many students' reports, identify which section was real and which was experimental. For example, if you had two LG sections, you know one of them was fake. But you don’t know which one. Was it the one with the flowers or was it the one with the planets? On the Forums, you're bound to encounter someone else who had only one LG section. That means their LG section was the real section. They’ll say something like, “Thank God I only got one LG! It was about flowers.” Now you can infer that the planets section was experimental.

Why does the experimental section even exist?

According to the LSAC, the experimental section “typically is used to pretest new test questions or to preequate new test forms.”

It is a way for the LSAC to test new questions to ensure fairness and comparability across different LSAT administrations.

How come PrepTests only have four sections?

Each PrepTest (PT) consists of only the scored sections from the actual administered LSAT. Since the experimental sections are not released, they do not make it into the PrepTests.

How can I get a five-section PrepTest to train my stamina?

To get a five-section PT, you have to “sacrifice” another PT. You can randomly pick a PT, print it out, and split it up into its four sections. Then you insert one of those sections into whatever PT you're going to take to make a five-section PT.

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Did you know that there's no such thing as a brand new Logic Game? It's true. Every LSAT Logic Games is only disguised to look like it is new when in fact, it is simply a reincarnation of older, existing Logic Games. Dwell on that for a second. That means you're never going to encounter a brand new Logic Game.  That means every new LSAT PrepTest you take (including the one that actually counts) will have Games that you've pretty much have already seen before.  Not exactly the same, but very similar.  Isn't that awesome?

Think of it this way.  Each Logic Game is a cookie. The LSAT's been baking for over 20 years and they've baked close to 300 cookies.  But, back in the kitchen, there's actually only a few different cookie cutters that they use. Each cookie cutter cuts cookies that are very similar to the others cookies from the same cutter.  So, a square cookie cutter will cut square cookies.  All of these square cookies from the square cutter will resemble each other.

What does this mean for you?
You have to become acquainted with the cookie cutters (the Types of Logic Games) and not just the cookies (the Logic Games).  Stop thinking that there's 300 different Logic Games.  Instead, understand that there's only a few different types of Logic Games.  Then, you have to get good at recognizing so called "new" games as old, familiar games.  Old games that you've done already, games that you've already mastered through the Fool Proof Method.

You're probably thinking "How do I know which Games are similar to which other Games?"  We're going to tell you.  Right now, we are sorting all the Logic Games from LSAT PrepTest 20 (October 1996) - 68 (December 2012) into their Types (cookie cutters).  We're publishing the results as they become available.

Below, you'll find the "In/Out" Game Type. If you're enrolled in our online course, you'll know that In/Out Games are the foundation of all Grouping Games (which is one of the two broad category of Logic Games, the other being Sequencing Games).  In/Out Games are incredibly important to master. Here, we've sorted In/Out Games by similarity and difficulty.

How do I use this?
Look at the set below.  Say you had trouble with the Logic Game 2 from LSAT PrepTest 33. You should do and redo (and redo and redo...) every Logic Game in its set (including itself), starting with the Games listed in its set. The ones listed in another set are less similar, though still quite similar because every Game on this page is an In/Out Game.

1. Print this list out and tape it to your wall.  Games are displayed as LSAT PrepTest#.Game#.
Optional. Purchase the PDF with all the Games in the list (coming soon!)
2. Do these Game together in their set clusters using the Fool Proof Method.
3. Never miss a question on an In/Out Game again.

The Basic In/Out Games Set
PT33-Game2 | PT40-Game4 | PT45-Game3 | PT58-Game2
These are the "purest" In/Out Games. All the rules chain up very nicely. They require only an understanding of basic conditional logic.

The Basic+ In/Out Games Set
PT34-Game4 | PT41-Game3
Like the Games in the Basic group, these Games also have rules that chain up nicely. They are a little bit harder though. These Games are not immediately apparent as In/Out Games because the LSAT has disguised them.

The Easy In/Out Games Set
PT24-Game1 | PT29-Game1 | PT36-Game1 | PT48-Game1 | PT54-Game1

The Medium In/Out Games Set
PT20-Game2 | PT39-Game4 | PT47-Game2 | PT58-Game4 | PT59-Game3

The Difficult In/Out Games Set
PT31-Game2 | PT32-Game2 | PT49-Game3
These Games resemble each other less than the ones in the Basic Groups. Some of them require you to know Bi-Conditionals, De Morgan's Law, and some are also disguised. Some of these Games have fixed their slots some did not. You also need to be aware of when conditional rules trigger and when they become irrelevant.

The In/Out with Sub-Categories Games Set
PT24-Game4 | PT26-Game4 | PT33-Game3 | PT42-Game1 | PT50-Game2
These Games contain game pieces that fall into sub-categories.  At first, they are challenging, but once you learn to recognize them and draw the game board correctly, they become manageable.

The In/Out with Sequencing Games Set
PT25-Game3 | PT30-Game2 | PT32-Game1 | PT40-Game2 | PT61-Game3
These Games require you to Sequence items within the In/Out groups.  You should master Sequencing Games before attempting this set.  Knowledge of Conditionals, Bi-Conditionals, De Morgan's Law are also required for some.

The Miscellaneous/Difficult In/Out Games Set
PT22-Game4 | PT23-Game2 | PT57-Game3
These Games are challenging and less similar to the other Games in the In/Out Games set.

Extended In/Out Games Set
PT33-Game2 | PT40-Game4 | PT45-Game3 | PT58-Game2 | PT34-Game4
PT41-Game3 | PT24-Game1 | PT29-Game1 | PT36-Game1 | PT48-Game1
PT54-Game1 | PT63-Game1 | PT20-Game2 | PT39-Game4 | PT47-Game2
PT58-Game4 | PT59-Game3 | PT31-Game2 | PT32-Game2 | PT49-Game3
PT24-Game4 | PT26-Game4 | PT33-Game3 | PT42-Game1 | PT50-Game2
PT65-Game3 | PT25-Game3 | PT30-Game2 | PT32-Game1 | PT40-Game2
PT61-Game3 | PT22-Game4 | PT23-Game2 | PT57-Game3

Featured image: cookies-attribution-matthias-rhomberg

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[This is a lesson excerpt from our online LSAT course, for which we invite you to enroll.]

Logic games are the hardest section of the LSAT, at first. They're like nothing you've ever seen before, and they're very confusing.

Fortunately, they're also the easiest section to get better at. It all starts by getting a good overview of what you're up against. That's why we made this video introduction logic games. Enjoy!

You may find logic games tough now. They're difficult because they're unfamiliar. As you practice, they get a lot easier. We promise.

Repeating logic games until you master them is the best way to get good at games. Our students have used repetition to score near perfect on games, and so can you.

Don't worry too much about game types. You'll find complicated classification systems in books and on the internet, but these aren't necessary and can be distracting. We just classify games as either sequencing, grouping or a mixture of the two types.

Did you like this introduction to logic games video? It's part of our online LSAT course. If you found the video useful, you'll probably like the rest of our course too. You should have a look.

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[This is a lesson excerpt from our online course, for which we invite you to enroll.]

The June 2016 LSAT administration is on the horizon. Student after student has been asking us: "Should I take the LSAT in June or delay it to the next (September 2016) administration?" Let’s help you evaluate your situation and make a decision, with a reality check.
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[This is a lesson excerpt from our online course, for which we invite you to enroll.]

A video introduction to LSAT logical indicators.

Sufficient And Necessary Indicators On The LSAT

LSAT Necessary Or Sufficient Condition?

Sufficient Or Necessary?


The words in the 4 translation groups, which are covered in our online course, and the words “some” ”most”and “few” (which are also in lessons in our course) are special. They are logical indicators. Also called logical operators. As logical indicators, these words perform a very specific function in the English language. They lay down the structure of the sentence as opposed to the content.

For example, let’s consider “if”.

I can say, “If you are a man, then you are mortal.”
Or I can say “If you like cheesecake, then you’re gonna love my surprise!”

Of course, these sentences are distinct. They express very different ideas. The first sentence is about the inevitable mortality of all men and the second is about cake. But, these different ideas are not informed by the words “if” and “then.” Rather, they are informed by the other words in the sentence, like “mortal” and “cheesecake.” What do “if” and “then” do? They lay down the structure of the logical relationship. In other words, what they do is to establish that whatever these ideas may be in this particular sentence (in the first example, being a man and being mortal, in the second, liking cheesecake and liking the surprise) they exist in a conditional relationship with each other where the idea following the “if” is the sufficient condition and the idea following the “then” is the necessary condition.

Once you realize this, you see that it doesn’t matter what ideas go into this structure. If X then Y says that X is sufficient for Y and Y is necessary for X. You can define X and Y to be whatever you want. X is being a man and Y is being mortal. So we’ve recreated the first sentence. X is eating a hamburger and Y is being able to fly. So, eating a hamburger is sufficient for being able to fly. That sentence would, of course, be false. Awesome, but false. Yet, that doesn’t change the fact that it expresses a conditional relationship between the two ideas. Of course, the reason that it’s false is because that conditional relationship does not hold in our world. Who knows, maybe there is a world where eating hamburgers guarantees your ability to take flight. That world will be almost as crazy as one in which being a Jedi allows you to use the Force, whatever that is.

Some words in English express logical relationships. We call them logical indicators or logical operators. These words are special and you should train to become sensitive to them.

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[This is a lesson excerpt from our online course, for which we invite you to enroll.]

Below, you will find a LSAT logical reasoning question with each of its components labeled. Learn their names. You will not be able to follow along with the curriculum if you do not know what the different parts of the question are called.

I also want to introduce you to “the author.” The author is the person writing the passage to you. It’s helpful to think of the author as the person speaking to you, trying to convince you of her point of view, in other words, trying to sell you on her conclusion. In the curriculum, I will often refer to the “author’s argument” as “our argument” or the “argument.” Take note of this when it happens. Often, the stimulus contains more than one argument and it’s invariably the author’s argument that the question stem is referring to.

The author is the person writing the passage to you. The passage is the same thing as the stimulus. The question stem lays out the directions for you to choose the correct answer choice.

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[This is a lesson excerpt from our online course, for which we invite you to enroll.]


For this edition of LSAT Fundamentals, let’s engage in a little verbal sparring. Say the above sentence differently. By that I mean use a different grammatical structure to express the same meaning. Give it a shot, young Skywalker.What? You are done already? Let me see what you got there.

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[This is a lesson excerpt from our online course, for which we invite you to enroll.]

Think you know what the word "or" means? You might not! Check out this video to find out more about one of our favorite LSAT fundamentals.

“OR” is a Very Confusing Word In English

The word OR on the LSAT

Do you know really what this word means?

The word “or” and the often interchangeably used phrase “either or” are ambiguous. That means they have more than one meaning. Sometimes “or” means “or, but not both,” sometimes it simply means“and,” and sometimes, it means “and/or.” Context will tell you which meaning is intended and let me save you a lot of trouble and tell you right now that the meaning that the LSAT summons most often is “and/or.” That’s why we included “or” as a Group 3 logical indicator.

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[This is a lesson excerpt from our online course, for which we invite you to enroll.]


Sufficient Assumption questions are like Inference Must be True (MBT) questions, in reverse.

In MBT questions, you’re given all the premises and asked to find the conclusion that would make for a valid argument. Here, you’re given the conclusion and all the premises (minus one). You’re asked to supply that missing premise which will make the argument valid. So really, they can easily turn any MBT question into a SA question by switching out the right answer choice for a premise in the stimulus. Or vice versa.

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