Archive for the ‘Logic Games’ Category

Did you know that there's no such thing as a brand new Logic Game? It's true. Every LSAT Logic Games is only disguised to look like it is new when in fact, it is simply a reincarnation of older, existing Logic Games. Dwell on that for a second. That means you're never going to encounter a brand new Logic Game.  That means every new LSAT PrepTest you take (including the one that actually counts) will have Games that you've pretty much have already seen before.  Not exactly the same, but very similar.  Isn't that awesome?

Think of it this way.  Each Logic Game is a cookie. The LSAT's been baking for over 20 years and they've baked close to 300 cookies.  But, back in the kitchen, there's actually only a few different cookie cutters that they use. Each cookie cutter cuts cookies that are very similar to the others cookies from the same cutter.  So, a square cookie cutter will cut square cookies.  All of these square cookies from the square cutter will resemble each other.

What does this mean for you?
You have to become acquainted with the cookie cutters (the Types of Logic Games) and not just the cookies (the Logic Games).  Stop thinking that there's 300 different Logic Games.  Instead, understand that there's only a few different types of Logic Games.  Then, you have to get good at recognizing so called "new" games as old, familiar games.  Old games that you've done already, games that you've already mastered through the Fool Proof Method.

You're probably thinking "How do I know which Games are similar to which other Games?"  We're going to tell you.  Right now, we are sorting all the Logic Games from LSAT PrepTest 20 (October 1996) - 68 (December 2012) into their Types (cookie cutters).  We're publishing the results as they become available.

Below, you'll find the "In/Out" Game Type. If you're enrolled in our online course, you'll know that In/Out Games are the foundation of all Grouping Games (which is one of the two broad category of Logic Games, the other being Sequencing Games).  In/Out Games are incredibly important to master. Here, we've sorted In/Out Games by similarity and difficulty.

How do I use this?
Look at the set below.  Say you had trouble with the Logic Game 2 from LSAT PrepTest 33. You should do and redo (and redo and redo...) every Logic Game in its set (including itself), starting with the Games listed in its set. The ones listed in another set are less similar, though still quite similar because every Game on this page is an In/Out Game.

1. Print this list out and tape it to your wall.  Games are displayed as LSAT PrepTest#.Game#.
Optional. Purchase the PDF with all the Games in the list (coming soon!)
2. Do these Game together in their set clusters using the Fool Proof Method.
3. Never miss a question on an In/Out Game again.

The Basic In/Out Games Set
PT33-Game2 | PT40-Game4 | PT45-Game3 | PT58-Game2
These are the "purest" In/Out Games. All the rules chain up very nicely. They require only an understanding of basic conditional logic.

The Basic+ In/Out Games Set
PT34-Game4 | PT41-Game3
Like the Games in the Basic group, these Games also have rules that chain up nicely. They are a little bit harder though. These Games are not immediately apparent as In/Out Games because the LSAT has disguised them.

The Easy In/Out Games Set
PT24-Game1 | PT29-Game1 | PT36-Game1 | PT48-Game1 | PT54-Game1
PT63-Game1

The Medium In/Out Games Set
PT20-Game2 | PT39-Game4 | PT47-Game2 | PT58-Game4 | PT59-Game3

The Difficult In/Out Games Set
PT31-Game2 | PT32-Game2 | PT49-Game3
These Games resemble each other less than the ones in the Basic Groups. Some of them require you to know Bi-Conditionals, De Morgan's Law, and some are also disguised. Some of these Games have fixed their slots some did not. You also need to be aware of when conditional rules trigger and when they become irrelevant.

The In/Out with Sub-Categories Games Set
PT24-Game4 | PT26-Game4 | PT33-Game3 | PT42-Game1 | PT50-Game2
PT65-Game3
These Games contain game pieces that fall into sub-categories.  At first, they are challenging, but once you learn to recognize them and draw the game board correctly, they become manageable.

The In/Out with Sequencing Games Set
PT25-Game3 | PT30-Game2 | PT32-Game1 | PT40-Game2 | PT61-Game3
These Games require you to Sequence items within the In/Out groups.  You should master Sequencing Games before attempting this set.  Knowledge of Conditionals, Bi-Conditionals, De Morgan's Law are also required for some.

The Miscellaneous/Difficult In/Out Games Set
PT22-Game4 | PT23-Game2 | PT57-Game3
These Games are challenging and less similar to the other Games in the In/Out Games set.

Extended In/Out Games Set
PT33-Game2 | PT40-Game4 | PT45-Game3 | PT58-Game2 | PT34-Game4
PT41-Game3 | PT24-Game1 | PT29-Game1 | PT36-Game1 | PT48-Game1
PT54-Game1 | PT63-Game1 | PT20-Game2 | PT39-Game4 | PT47-Game2
PT58-Game4 | PT59-Game3 | PT31-Game2 | PT32-Game2 | PT49-Game3
PT24-Game4 | PT26-Game4 | PT33-Game3 | PT42-Game1 | PT50-Game2
PT65-Game3 | PT25-Game3 | PT30-Game2 | PT32-Game1 | PT40-Game2
PT61-Game3 | PT22-Game4 | PT23-Game2 | PT57-Game3

Featured image: cookies-attribution-matthias-rhomberg

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The key to Logic Games is the 7Sage Fool Proof Method.

LSAT Logic games are pretty much just variations on previous games.  Logic games are easy once you get used to the game types and inference patterns that are used.

How to do you get used to them?

You repeat them.  Over and over.  You print out multiple copies of every game and do it over and over until you master each one.

You're essentially training your mind to see the possible inferences in a game.  Eventually Logic Games become intuitive, and new logic games begin to feel like mashups of old games.

Learn more about this in your LSAT course or on the blog.

Featured image: Elliott Brown

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[This is a lesson excerpt from our online LSAT course, for which we invite you to enroll.]

Logic games are the hardest section of the LSAT, at first. They're like nothing you've ever seen before, and they're very confusing.

Fortunately, they're also the easiest section to get better at. It all starts by getting a good overview of what you're up against. That's why we made this video introduction logic games. Enjoy!

5s
5s
0.8x
1.0x
1.2x
1.4x
1.7x
2.0x
2.4x
3.0x

You may find logic games tough now. They're difficult because they're unfamiliar. As you practice, they get a lot easier. We promise.

Repeating logic games until you master them is the best way to get good at games. Our students have used repetition to score near perfect on games, and so can you.

Don't worry too much about game types. You'll find complicated classification systems in books and on the internet, but these aren't necessary and can be distracting. We just classify games as either sequencing, grouping or a mixture of the two types.

Did you like this introduction to logic games video? It's part of our online LSAT course. If you found the video useful, you'll probably like the rest of our course too. You should have a look.

Featured image: Abdulla Al Muhairi

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[This is a lesson excerpt from our online course, for which we invite you to enroll.]

LSAT Conditional Logic Group 1 is made up of the following terms:

  • If
  • When
  • Where
  • All
  • The only
  • Every
  • Any

All the words in this group follow this translation rule:

The ideas introduced by (i.e., immediately following) these words are the sufficient conditions.

Let’s try it
Continue reading

Featured image: Tim Parker

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cover-preptest-C

I took PrepTest C (the February 2000 LSAT) under simulated testing conditions.  I want to share some of my thoughts with you.  This post will cover Logic Games for which I have already made the videos lessons (with links below).

**Spoiler Alert**

Stop reading if you haven't taken this prep test yet.  It'll ruin the test for you.

LSAT C Logic Game Summaries and Video Explanation Links

Game 1 - At a water carnival, eight lifeguards will participate in two events.  One event is a boat race and the other is a rescue exercise.  These lifeguards will be grouped into four two-person teams.

Game 2 - A critic ranks exactly seven restaurants.  These restaurants are named Lautrec, Medici, Pastilla, Robusto, Scheherazade's, Tantoko, and Vistula from the best - the highest rank - to the worst - the lowest rank.

Game 3 - Three parks, Jessup, Island, and Hilltop, contain attractions. The attractions are of five types: fountain, garden, museum, playground, or theater.

Game 4 - Dynamic Motors will assemble four new automobile models.  Over the next three years, the models Volante, Whisper, Xavier, and Ziggurat will be assembled in its five factories F, G, H, J, and K.

Game 1 - Lifeguards at water carnival

This is a grouping game with an unusual setup.  That means it's hard initially.  If you aren't careful, it reads like an In/Out game.  Once you realize that it's not, that in fact for each of the two events, you are asked to group the eight lifeguards into four teams of two persons each, you'll see the right game board.  From there on out, this game is easy.

Game 2 - Critic ranks seven restaurants

This is a tough sequencing game.  You have to be proficient in handling conditional rules in a sequencing game.  The conditional rule in this game breaks up the game into, essentially, two sub-game boards.  Beyond that, your proficiency with basic sequencing games will determine how quickly you can move through the questions.

Game 3 - Three parks with five attractions

This is an easy grouping game with a chart.  If you setup it up with a chart, you can figure out three sub-game boards that represent all possible worlds.  The questions are fast.

Game 4 - Dynamic motors assemble automobiles

This is a hard, unique game.  The game board doesn't look like any game board that we're used to.  So, you have to spend some time figuring out what game board works best to organize the information in this game.  The rules are also difficult to represent visually.  As with all games, spend time upfront understanding the setup, the game board, the rules, and the pieces.  Otherwise, the questions will simply be a waste of time.

So, what's the take away?  Games two and four games were hard.  You have to be able to move through the easy ones very quickly to save up enough time to tackle the hard ones.

______________

For more Logic Games explanations like these, hop over to our Logic Games page. There, we’ve recorded video explanations for every Logic Game going back over a decade. All in HD, with variable playback speed, and you get to ask questions. Full access included in 7Sage LSAT Premium and above.


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cover-preptest-BI took PrepTest B (the February 1999 LSAT) under simulated testing conditions.  I want to share some of my thoughts with you.  This post will cover Logic Games for which I have already made the videos lessons (with links below).

**Spoiler Alert**

Stop reading if you haven't taken this prep test yet.  It'll ruin the test for you.

LSAT B Logic Game Summaries and Video Explanation Links

Game 1 - Eight boats arrive at a dock.  They are named Jewel, Kashmir, Neptune, Ojibwa, Pacific, Spain, Tornado, and Valhalla.

Game 2 - A park contains at most five of seven kinds of trees.  The trees are firs, laurels, maples, oaks, pines, spruces, and yews.

Game 3 - Four married couples dine at a circular table.  They are named Francisco, Gabrielle, Kyoko, Lee, Olivia, Peter, Raymond, and Simone.

Game 4 - Zeno's unfinished furniture sells five types of furniture.  Footstools, hutches, sideboards, tables, and vanities.  From the five, Irene will buy four.  Each piece Irene buys will be made from a kind of wood: maple, oak, pine, rosewood.

Game 1 - Eight boats arrive at a dock

This is a simple, easy sequencing game.  We've seen very similar reincarnations of this game before.  You should finish this in under 5 minutes if you want to get through all the games in this set.  Your proficiency with the basic sequencing chart will determine how quickly you can push through this game.

Game 2 - A park contains trees

This is a very difficult in/out game.  If you do not normally have enough time to finish all the games, this is the one you should skip.  The rules that make this game hard are the last two rules.  One of them has an embedded conditional.  Both of them demand that you represent them visually to fully understand how they control the pieces on the game board.  Once you do that, you can split the game into three sub-game boards to use up these two confusing rules.

Game 3 - Married couples dine at a circular table

This is a medium difficulty spatial game.  You can think of it as a circular sequencing game.  It's unusual because of the circular game board.  Aside from that, this game is not very difficult.  Hit the questions quick after a brief, simple game board setup.  For many of the questions, you'll have to draw sub-game boards that cater to them.

Game 4 - Zeno's sells furniture

This is a hardish in/out game with grouping within the in group.  Since there's only one item in the out group, you should split the game board up into two sub-game boards to accomodate the two possible items that could be out.  Once you do that, you can focus your attention of grouping the items within the in group.  In the in group, you have to figure out what wood goes with what type of furniture.  If you're not adept with conditional logic, there is a conditional rule that could potentially be confusing.

______________

For more Logic Games explanations like these, hop over to our Logic Games page. There, we’ve recorded video explanations for every Logic Game going back over a decade. All in HD, with variable playback speed, and you get to ask questions. Full access included in 7Sage LSAT Premium and above.


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cover-preptest-68I just took PrepTest 68 (the December 2012 LSAT) under simulated testing conditions.  I want to share some of my thoughts with you.  This post will cover Logic Games for which I have already made the videos lessons (links below).

**Spoiler Alert**

Stop reading if you haven't taken this prep test yet.  It'll ruin the test for you.

LSAT 68 Logic Game Summaries and Video Explanation Links

Game 1 - A realtor is showing a prospective buyer seven houses.  The first and second houses are shown in the morning.  The third, fourth, and fifth are shown in the afternoon.  The fifth and sixth are shown in the evening.

Game 2 - Five witnesses are scheduled to testify at a hearing. The hearing is scheduled on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday.

Game 3 - A maintenance company is taking service requests.  Their clients are Image, Solide, and Truvest.  For each client, there are two service targets - one for website requests and one for voicemail requests.  The service targets are set for either 3 days, 2 days, or 1 day.

Game 4 - An editor will edit seven articles. Three articles cover finance, three cover nutrition and one covers wildlife.

Games 1 and 2

The first and second games are standard sequencing and grouping games where much of the board can be determined.  I made a few sub-game boards to better visually represent the placement of items on the game board.  Both games were solved in about 5 minutes each with no errors.

Game 3 - Maintenance Company

Since the first two games were quick, I expected the third and fourth games to be harder. The LSAT did not disappoint.  The third one was confusing.  I had to read the stimulus a couple of times to figure out how to set up the game board correctly.  The stimulus used a lot of referential phrasing ("clients" and "service targets") that made the it hard to follow.  The first rule took about 4 or 5 re-readings to sink in.  I thought pretty hard about what it meant for "website targets to be not longer than voicemail targets." As is almost always the case, the time invested up front was worth it.  I split up the game board into a few sub-game boards.  Even with the sub-game boards drawn out, I still had to redraw them next to most of the questions to avoid careless confusion.  This game took about 10 minutes with no errors.

Game 4 - Editor, Very Difficult

Going into the fourth game with about 15 minutes on the clock was comfortable.  Still, I wasn't fully prepared for how difficult it would end up being.  After setting up the game board and writing down the rules, I stared at the nearly blank page for a couple of seconds.  I was pretty sure there would be no point in trying to spilt the main game board up into sub-game boards.  The rules were so open that I couldn't make any inferences and so I didn't know where to start.  But with plenty of time left on the clock I just hit the questions hard and thought I would brute force my way through them.

That was risky.  Most of the questions required a separate game board setup for each answer choice.  That meant creating making up to 5 game boards for each question!  That felt paralyzing.  But you just do it.  By the time I got to the last 2 questions, I was down to 2 minutes.  Brute force is a highly time consuming strategy.  For the second to last question, after spending about  a minute on it, I eliminated the answers down to two.  I had a strong feeling about one of them and just chose it so I could move onto the last question.  I didn't prove it out.  I just moved onto the last question.  I got lucky and got it right.

With under a minute left for the last question, I looked at answers and guessed at which one of the five probably was right given what I knew about the dynamics of the rules.  Before I could even prove my only guess at the correct answer, time ran out so I had to bubble in my choice.  I got lucky again.

So, what's the take away?  Two of these four games were hard.  You have to be able to move through the easy ones very quickly to save up enough time to tackle the hard ones.

______________

For more Logic Games explanations like these, hop over to our Logic Games page. There, we’ve recorded video explanations for every Logic Game going back over a decade. All in HD, with variable playback speed, and you get to ask questions. Full access included in 7Sage LSAT Premium and above.


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