PT73.S4.Q23 - Problem: If Shayna congratulates Daniel on his award

Kaleighns4Kaleighns4 Alum Member
edited December 2018 in Logical Reasoning 45 karma

Can someone please explain to me how the answer is E on this question? I chose answer choice B and don't understand why or how answer E is correct.

Admin note: edited title


  • juanmapmjuanmapm Alum Member
    edited December 2018 379 karma

    @Kaleighns4 this is my first time explaining a question so sorry ahead of time if my explanation is convoluted.

    This is a principle question with a somewhat unique form.

    Our problem is stated in conditional language: If S congratulates D ---> S is insincere (A--->B). If S does not congratulate D ----> S hurts D's feelings (~A--->C). Terms match so our conditional chain is: S does not hurt's D's feelings ----> S congratulates D -----> S insincere (~C--->A--->B).

    Our principle states that one should never be insincere about one's feelings (except where one believes that the person with whom one is speaking would prefer kindness to honesty). Therefore, we are looking for an answer choice that must have something to do with Shayna's sincerity/insincerity and be aware of the exception of Shayna believing that Daniel prefers kindness to honesty.

    Answer choice B is tempting since it matches our conditional terms but it talks about how Daniel might feel but not at all how Shayna would feel/if she's truly is being insincere. (D is wrong for the same reason)

    That leaves us with A, C, and E.

    A is wrong since it affirms the sufficient condition (~C) which would mean Shayna is being insincere (B) which flies against the principle.
    C is wrong since it talks in very vague terms about Shayna preferring kindness to honesty (we only care about Daniel's preference and about Shayna being honest/dishonest with her feelings).
    E is correct since it goes hand-in-hand with our principle. Shayna has no opinion about Daniel preference's between kindness and honesty (so our exception to the principle is overcome), and by not congratulating him she is not being insincere (by negating the sufficient the conditional relationship just falls away).

  • Heart Shaped BoxHeart Shaped Box Alum Member
    edited December 2018 2426 karma

    Since you didn’t provide details in terms of exactly where the confusion is with E, just as a guess I think the reason it gives you pause ‘maybe’ bc you don’t necessarily agree “no opinion” is the same as “not believing” hence the exception clause wouldn’t fail in your opinion, which is perfectly understandable if that’s in fact the issue.

    I don’t intent to start any controversy but personally I translate except in this case as “unless”, so negate sufficient, if one not believing ...blah blah...prefer kindness to honesty, then one should never be insincere.

    Not believing... —> sincere —> not congratulate

    Note the negation of believe is “not believing” and that’s different from “don’t believe”.

    A simple example;

    As you know, the negation of hot isn’t “cold”, but “not hot” which encompasses cold, lukewarm or room/regular tempt or whatever, all of which would fall into the category and umbrella of “not hot”.

    Same situation here.

    “Not believing” gives rise to “don’t believe” as well as “indifferent” (no opinion)

    So if E says Shayna has “no opinion”, that’s in fact logically consistent with “not believing” (the negation of believe) hence the conditional chain triggers and exception clause wouldn’t, then she really needs to be sincere and not congratulate him.

    I got this one wrong so hard the first time around so no worries :)

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