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Question
QuickView
Choices
Curve Question
Difficulty
Psg/Game/S
Difficulty
Explanation
PT12 S4 Q22
+LR
Resolve reconcile or explain +RRE
A
26%
162
B
3%
158
C
63%
166
D
6%
158
E
3%
160
149
159
170
+Harder 149.171 +SubsectionMedium

We should recognize this as a resolve, reconcile, explain question, as it demands: Which one of the following, if true, most helps to resolve the apparently conflicting findings?

The stimulus begins with a long-term health study which monitored a group of 35 year-olds in 1950, and discovered that those whose weight increased by one pound per year after 35 tended to live longer than those who kept a consistent weight. So for example the person who was 190 lbs at 35 and 200lbs at 45 was on average likely to live longer than a person who just stayed 190lbs. This finding is at variance (here’s our conflict) with other studies that correlated weigh gain with health problems which tend to lower life expectancy. We need something that will explain why the weight gain people lived longer that is consistent with weight gain being generally associated with health problems. Let’s see what we get:

Answer Choice (A) To make up a smaller proportion means the subset (muscle and bone tissue) represented a smaller fraction of the superset (bodyweight as a whole). This could be because the superset is growing (maybe they are gaining fat) or the subset is shrinking (they are just losing muscle and bone tissue). Regardless, this wouldn’t explain the studies findings because it wouldn’t change that the superset is growing for the weight gain people and this superset growth is itself associated with health problems.

Answer Choice (B) But our study group didn’t lose weight and yet lived longer despite weight gain being associated with health issues.

Correct Answer Choice (C) Bingo! If smoking correlates with both shorter life span and less weight, then maybe although weight gain also correlates with health issues, the weight gain group still lived longer than the no weight gain group, as the latter would include all smokers.

Answer Choice (D) This associates a health benefit with less calories, which would do nothing to explain how those ostensibly consuming a large caloric surplus (the people gaining weight) are living longer.

Answer Choice (E) This just associates more unhealthy stuff with weight gain and makes the weight gain group outliving the no weight gain group even weirder!