Archive for the ‘LSAT Resources’ Category

Usually, when you take an LSAT, you will get your score report back along with the entire test you took. That means you’ll get to see not only your LSAT score, but also the actual questions you attempted to answer on test day. You can look at your score report, analyze the questions you missed, and review it like you would a PrepTest. These are the disclosed LSATs.

With a disclosed LSAT, on score release day, you’ll get the following from LSAC:

  • Your scaled score (120 – 180)
  • Your raw score (0 – 100)
  • Your percentile (0% – 99.9%)
  • A copy of your answer sheet
  • A copy of the test you took with every single question in it

However, some LSATs are not disclosed. When the test is nondisclosed, you won’t get the test back when you receive your score. That means you can't see where you made mistakes.

On score release day, you’ll only get the following from LSAC:

  • Your score (120 – 180)
  • Your percentile (0% – 99.9%)

Obviously, it’s a drawback of taking the nondisclosed LSAT that you can’t review the questions you missed. Indeed, you won’t even know which questions you missed.

How many LSATs are nondisclosed?

In the United States, Canada, and the Caribbean in 2018–2019, three LSATs are nondisclosed.

  • June 2018
  • July 2018 (nondisclosed)
  • September 2018
  • November 2018
  • January 2019 (nondisclosed)
  • March 2019 (nondisclosed)

In addition to the three above, LSATs taken outside the United States, Canada, and the Caribbean are always nondisclosed. These tests are often referred to as international tests.

Are international nondisclosed tests different?


For example, students reported that the June 2018 LSAT in Asia (nondisclosed) used the same test as the February 2015 LSAT (nondisclosed) in North America. The December 2017 LSAT in Asia and February 2018 LSAT in Europe was also the test used for the February 2013 LSAT (nondisclosed) in North America.

The LSAT is a standardized test for admission to law schools in North America (and a few schools in Australia), so it's not supposed to vary by region. International tests often use previously administered nondisclosed LSATs (such as February tests in North America).

Why are some LSATs nondisclosed?

LSAC says, "LSAC discloses some but not all tests because it is necessary to have some nondisclosed test forms available for emergencies and special uses."

It is a way for LSAC to keep some test forms for future uses. For example, there are sometimes make-up tests for people who couldn’t take the LSAT due to some natural disaster, and according to some students’ reports, previously administered nondisclosed tests are used in make-up administrations.

How should I prepare for nondisclosed tests?

In exactly the same way as you would for any LSAT. There’s nothing different you should do for nondisclosed tests.

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Did you know that there's no such thing as a brand new Logic Game? It's true. Every LSAT Logic Games is only disguised to look like it is new when in fact, it is simply a reincarnation of older, existing Logic Games. Dwell on that for a second. That means you're never going to encounter a brand new Logic Game.  That means every new LSAT PrepTest you take (including the one that actually counts) will have Games that you've pretty much have already seen before.  Not exactly the same, but very similar.  Isn't that awesome?

Think of it this way.  Each Logic Game is a cookie. The LSAT's been baking for over 20 years and they've baked close to 300 cookies.  But, back in the kitchen, there's actually only a few different cookie cutters that they use. Each cookie cutter cuts cookies that are very similar to the others cookies from the same cutter.  So, a square cookie cutter will cut square cookies.  All of these square cookies from the square cutter will resemble each other.

What does this mean for you?
You have to become acquainted with the cookie cutters (the Types of Logic Games) and not just the cookies (the Logic Games).  Stop thinking that there's 300 different Logic Games.  Instead, understand that there's only a few different types of Logic Games.  Then, you have to get good at recognizing so called "new" games as old, familiar games.  Old games that you've done already, games that you've already mastered through the Fool Proof Method.

You're probably thinking "How do I know which Games are similar to which other Games?"  We're going to tell you.  Right now, we are sorting all the Logic Games from LSAT PrepTest 20 (October 1996) - 68 (December 2012) into their Types (cookie cutters).  We're publishing the results as they become available.

Below, you'll find the "In/Out" Game Type. If you're enrolled in our online course, you'll know that In/Out Games are the foundation of all Grouping Games (which is one of the two broad category of Logic Games, the other being Sequencing Games).  In/Out Games are incredibly important to master. Here, we've sorted In/Out Games by similarity and difficulty.

How do I use this?
Look at the set below.  Say you had trouble with the Logic Game 2 from LSAT PrepTest 33. You should do and redo (and redo and redo...) every Logic Game in its set (including itself), starting with the Games listed in its set. The ones listed in another set are less similar, though still quite similar because every Game on this page is an In/Out Game.

1. Print this list out and tape it to your wall.  Games are displayed as LSAT PrepTest#.Game#.
Optional. Purchase the PDF with all the Games in the list (coming soon!)
2. Do these Game together in their set clusters using the Fool Proof Method.
3. Never miss a question on an In/Out Game again.

The Basic In/Out Games Set
PT33-Game2 | PT40-Game4 | PT45-Game3 | PT58-Game2
These are the "purest" In/Out Games. All the rules chain up very nicely. They require only an understanding of basic conditional logic.

The Basic+ In/Out Games Set
PT34-Game4 | PT41-Game3
Like the Games in the Basic group, these Games also have rules that chain up nicely. They are a little bit harder though. These Games are not immediately apparent as In/Out Games because the LSAT has disguised them.

The Easy In/Out Games Set
PT24-Game1 | PT29-Game1 | PT36-Game1 | PT48-Game1 | PT54-Game1

The Medium In/Out Games Set
PT20-Game2 | PT39-Game4 | PT47-Game2 | PT58-Game4 | PT59-Game3

The Difficult In/Out Games Set
PT31-Game2 | PT32-Game2 | PT49-Game3
These Games resemble each other less than the ones in the Basic Groups. Some of them require you to know Bi-Conditionals, De Morgan's Law, and some are also disguised. Some of these Games have fixed their slots some did not. You also need to be aware of when conditional rules trigger and when they become irrelevant.

The In/Out with Sub-Categories Games Set
PT24-Game4 | PT26-Game4 | PT33-Game3 | PT42-Game1 | PT50-Game2
These Games contain game pieces that fall into sub-categories.  At first, they are challenging, but once you learn to recognize them and draw the game board correctly, they become manageable.

The In/Out with Sequencing Games Set
PT25-Game3 | PT30-Game2 | PT32-Game1 | PT40-Game2 | PT61-Game3
These Games require you to Sequence items within the In/Out groups.  You should master Sequencing Games before attempting this set.  Knowledge of Conditionals, Bi-Conditionals, De Morgan's Law are also required for some.

The Miscellaneous/Difficult In/Out Games Set
PT22-Game4 | PT23-Game2 | PT57-Game3
These Games are challenging and less similar to the other Games in the In/Out Games set.

Extended In/Out Games Set
PT33-Game2 | PT40-Game4 | PT45-Game3 | PT58-Game2 | PT34-Game4
PT41-Game3 | PT24-Game1 | PT29-Game1 | PT36-Game1 | PT48-Game1
PT54-Game1 | PT63-Game1 | PT20-Game2 | PT39-Game4 | PT47-Game2
PT58-Game4 | PT59-Game3 | PT31-Game2 | PT32-Game2 | PT49-Game3
PT24-Game4 | PT26-Game4 | PT33-Game3 | PT42-Game1 | PT50-Game2
PT65-Game3 | PT25-Game3 | PT30-Game2 | PT32-Game1 | PT40-Game2
PT61-Game3 | PT22-Game4 | PT23-Game2 | PT57-Game3

Featured image: cookies-attribution-matthias-rhomberg

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The LSAT is hard.  There’s no getting around that.  But it is a learnable test.  If you know how to prepare for the LSAT, you can study for the LSAT and improve in a pretty dramatic way.  Study hard and study right, and you will get better at the LSAT.  There are three things you need to do to get a great LSAT score.

1. Master grammar and logic

The LSAT is a test of grammar and logic.  Read that again.  If you get good at grammar and logic, you get good at the LSAT.

Grammar?  Yes, really.  Grammar.  Grammar is the law of language. The language used in the LSAT is intentionally confusing, yet precise.  The LSAT tests your ability to parse and decipher complicated sentences.  Sentences with triple negatives, referential phrases, and clauses within clauses.

Let this sentence be a warning if you never thought that a lack of grammar analysis abilities impacts how many students do on the LSAT in a negative manner or if you don’t find yourself seeing that it’s not unclear from this sentence that it actually has such an effect.

After reading, you need logic.  Once you actually understand what the questions and answers say, you have to understand how the logic plays out.  Concepts like validity, conditional statements, and premises should be near and dear to your heart.

How do you get good at logic?  For starters, try to take courses like Introduction to Logic, or Formal Logic in undergrad.  But really, a good LSAT prep course will teach you all the logic you need for the LSAT.  If they don’t teach you logic, then they’re robbing you blind.

2. Practice until you want to stab your eyes out with a No. 2 pencil

Take as many real, timed, LSAT PrepTests as possible. There are enough old LSATs (over 70) available that you will lose all your friends before you finish all of them.

Take only real LSATs.  Most LSAT books that you see in the bookstore do not use real LSATs. They make up their own questions to avoid licensing fees.  Made up LSATs are a complete waste of time.  Stay the hell away.  The whole point of practicing is to get good at doing the LSAT, not Honest Sal’s LSAT-like Test.

3. Review your answers

So once you finished a practice exam, what’s the first thing you do?  You check the answers and grade your test right?  No, wrong.

You should do something we call “Blind Review”.  When you take the practice tests, you circle every question you are unsure about.  After the test is over, go through every one of those questions and take however long you need to on the question – without looking at the answer.  Then when you mark your test you will have two scores.  Your real score, and your blind review score.  If your blind review score is low, then you need to work on your grammar and logic.  If your blind review score is high, then you need to work on your speed.

This is a powerful way of learning that only works when you haven’t peeked at the credited answer!

What now?

So now you know the three things you need to do in order to do well on the LSAT.  If you want to test the waters, sign up for a free trial.  If you're ready to dive in now, register for the best and most affordable online LSAT Prep course you can get.

What are you waiting for?  Jump in, beat the LSAT, go to law school and become a lawyer.

Featured image: Studying for the LSAT (Photo credit mezone)

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This mind map shows the contents of the Arguments section of our top-rated LSAT course's Core Curriculum. Does your LSAT prep course cover this?

For a printable PDF version of the mind map, click here: Arguments Mindmap


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[This is a lesson excerpt from our online course, for which we invite you to enroll.]

LSAT Conditional Logic GROUP 2 is made up of the following terms:

  • Only
  • Only if
  • Only when
  • Only where
  • Always
  • Requires
  • Must

All the words in this group follow this translation rule:

The ideas introduced by (i.e., immediately following) these words are the necessary conditions.

Let’s try it:
Continue reading

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[This is a lesson excerpt from our online course, for which we invite you to enroll.]

LSAT Conditional Logic Group 1 is made up of the following terms:

  • If
  • When
  • Where
  • All
  • The only
  • Every
  • Any

All the words in this group follow this translation rule:

The ideas introduced by (i.e., immediately following) these words are the sufficient conditions.

Let’s try it
Continue reading

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This mind map shows the contents of the Grammar section of our top-rated LSAT course's Core Curriculum. Does your LSAT prep course cover this?

For a color version of the mind maps, click here.

For a black-and-white version (which may be more suitable for some printers), please click here.

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Sometimes it can feel like we are prisoners to our own habits, and indeed, research suggests more than 40% of our daily actions are automatic processes we no longer screen. As author Charles Duhigg explains in his popular book The Power of Habit, "When a habit emerges, the brain stops fully participating in decision making. [...] So unless you deliberately fight a habit--unless you find new routines--the pattern will unfold automatically." For the LSAT, eliminating bad habits and developing productive new ones can be tremendously helpful in improving your score, especially if you're shooting for the 90th percentile and above.

Three elements make up a habit--the cue, the routine, and the reward. Duhigg suggests that one way to replace a bad habit is to change the routine, as smokers often do by substituting gum or other snacks for cigarettes. Another way to tweak an existing habit is to tack on a new, good habit to the routine, such as doing a few squats while brushing your teeth or more pertinently, adding the blind review process to your normal practice test schedule.

What Duhigg calls "keystone habits" should be another point of focus. These are the habits that when changed, can also impact other habits in positive ways. Making one's bed in the morning is one such habit, producing a small "win" early on in the day and instilling confidence that "bigger achievements are within reach." For the LSAT, you can create a pre-test routine of several "keystone habits" to build up confidence with each step--a process that, as Duhigg writes, will help you feel victorious even before you reach the main event of the day.

Although I wasn't aware of it at the time, I built a pre-test routine similar to what Duhigg recommends, practicing it each time I took a sample exam: eat some oatmeal while reading Wired (stimulating but not rocket science), do a really easy logic game to get my brain going, and "free write" my anxieties (i.e. what could be the worst case scenarios, what would be my plan, and reminders that these things had never happened in the previous practice tests). If nothing else, it cut down on my anxiety by making the exam less of an event and more of a natural next step on my checklist.

You can read more about changing habits in the Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business.

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When are LSAT scores actually released?

Almost always before the scheduled release date. Below, I'm listing the scheduled release dates v. actual release dates (for the past couple of years) to give you a sense of when you can expect to get your LSAT score back from the June 2013 LSAT. But, before that, here are some interesting

Summary Statistics

Average release date: -3.7 days (before scheduled date)
Average release date for June only: -3.2 days (before scheduled date)

Since the LSAC scheduled the score release for July 5, you can expect your June score either on July 2 or July 3.

Scheduled Score Release Dates v. Actual Score Release Dates

Test date Scheduled Actual Difference Days after test
Jun 10, 2013 Jul 5, 2013 Jul 1, 2013 -4 21
Feb 9, 2013 Mar 6, 2013 Mar 6, 2013 0 25
Dec 1, 2012 Jan 4, 2013 Jan 2, 2013 -2 32
Oct 6, 2012 Oct 31, 2012 Nov 1, 2012 1 26
Jun 11, 2012 Jul 6, 2012 Jul 2, 2012 -4 21
Feb 11, 2012 Mar 7, 2012 Mar 6, 2012 -1 24
Dec 3, 2011 Jan 6, 2012 Jan 4, 2012 -2 32
Oct 1, 2011 Oct 26, 2011 Oct 24, 2011 -2 23
Jun 6, 2011 Jun 29, 2011 Jun 27, 2011 -2 21
Feb 12, 2011 Mar 7, 2011 Mar 4, 2011 -3 20
Dec 11, 2010 Jan 10, 2011 Jan 6, 2011 -4 26
Oct 9, 2010 Nov 1, 2010 Oct 30, 2010 -2 21
Jun 7, 2010 Jun 28, 2010 Jun 25, 2010 -3 18
Featured image: cathedral ceiling - credit stevecadman

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Nearly all LSAT experts agree that reading outside articles is helpful as prep for LSAT. In this lesson, I want to show you how to improve your LSAT score by doing that. Let's read this very interesting article from the Economist together. It's less than 400 words and it's about attractive women.

Article summary

First, we're told that the conventional wisdom/hypothesis holds that attractive women should get ahead in the workplace. Why? Because people project positive attributes like sensitivity and poise onto them. Indeed, this conventional hypothesis is backed up with empirical evidence in the form of studies that show that attractive women are promoted more often.

Naturally, we think that this same advantage attractive women have in securing promotions would be present in securing job interviews, no?

As it turns out, new research reveals otherwise. The new empirical evidence suggests that attractive women who applied to jobs with a photo had to apply to an average of 11 jobs for every one interview offer. Contrast this with the exact same applicant who applied without a photo who only needed to apply to an average of 7 jobs to get an interview offer.

What's going on?

A new hypothesis is submitted: The dumb blonde hypothesis. People must think that prettier women are dumber. But, this hypothesis is immediately shut down. Prior to the study, these photos were rated on perceived intelligence and attractiveness and no correlation was found.

A better hypothesis is submitted: The jealousy hypothesis. 93% of Human Resources departments are women and they are the gatekeepers to interviews. They are discriminating against attractive female applicants.

Isn't this fascinating? Okay, but more to the point, from this passage, we can build many Logical Reasoning questions. Some of you seasoned LSAT students probably already sense an LR question looming on the horizon. That's a good sign!

Resolve-Reconcile-Explain question

RRE questions commonly introduce two seemingly conflicting ideas.  The two ideas could be hypotheses, phenomena, or data.  To build a RRE question out of this article, the passage would read:

It is generally accepted that attractive women get promoted more often but a new study finds that attractive women who submit photos with their applications to new jobs have less than half the interview rate than the same candidate who does not submit a photo.

Which one of the following, if true, would best resolve the apparent discrepancy above?

Within the article, we can find two resolutions (i.e., correct answer choices). First, we can say that people tend to think that prettier women are dumber. Second, we can say that employees who are gatekeepers to interviews are mostly women and women tend to be jealous of other beautiful women.

Weakening question

To make a Weakening question, we simply have to move some pieces around.  The stimulus would read:

A new study finds that attractive women who submit photos with their applications to new jobs have less than half the interview rate than the same candidate who does not submit a photo. This shows that people generally think that prettier women are dumber.

Which one of the following, if true, would best weaken the argument above?

Within the article, we can find two answers.  First, we can say that these photos were previously rated on perceived intelligence and attractiveness and no correlation was found. Second, we can offer an alternative hypothesis that says employees who are gatekeepers to interviews are mostly women and women tend to be jealous of other beautiful women.

See if you can build your own Strengthening, Descriptive Weakening, Weakening, or Resolve-Reconcile-Explain questions.

Or check out other Economist articles.  Their science articles are written like LSAT questions.

Featured image: the economist

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